Mercato di Sant'Ambrogio
Florence's "second" market (after the famous Mercato Centrale), the Mercato Alimentare Sant'Ambrogio, offers fresh food, household goods, some clothing, and restaurants from 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. every day except Sunday.
Saturday mornings are especially busy - and some fruit, vegetable, and specialty vendors only come on Fridays and Saturdays.
Outside the marketOutside on the long west side of the market you will find mostly fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as some cheeses and cold cuts, olives, bread, eggs, soaps, honey and more (food that doesn't need freezing or refrigeration). On the smaller north and south ends there are also clothes, shoes, and various household items (the east side is a small parking area and is used for deliveries and trash removal).
If you need something else for the house or hardware, keys made, etc., there is a great mesticheria, Mazzanti, that is accessible from the market area (the main entrance is at Borgo la Croce 101/R).
Inside the marketInside are meat, cheese and fish vendors, along with some general grocery, a bar (meaning coffee), and a trattoria, "De Rocco", which is a great place for an inexpensive lunch. The macellerie (butchers) here are usually of very good quality, among them you can find specialties like horse steaks and small birds that you may not find in other spots in Florence. The lone fish vendor has a very large counter with lots of frozen products - if fish is very important on your shopping list you will probably find more selection at the famous Mercato Centrale.
Overall this is our favorite food market - the experience is authentic (as it can be in a tourist town like Florence), the service is friendly, and there are (usually) more Florentines than tourists - not to mention all the great food, and some really good prices, especially on fruits and vegetables.
The market is located just off Piazza Ghiberti, and near Piazza/Chiesa Sant'Ambrogio.
Here's a great video (in Italian but you can turn on English subtitles if needed):
And here's another good video, the walk to the market brings back a lot of memories!
Mercato di Sant'Ambrogio location: